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Crosslinkers at a Glance

Crosslinking is the process of chemically joining two or more molecules by a covalent bond. Crosslinking reagents contain two or more reactive ends that are capable of attaching to specific functional groups (primary amines, sulfhydryls, etc.) on proteins or other molecules.

Only a small number of reactive chemistries are used as the basis for synthesizing the reagents that are most popular for protein conjugation techniques. However, these five or six types of reactive groups can be combined in a variety of ways and attached to molecular backbones of various lengths and chemical properties to create many specific crosslinking reagents.

Choosing among the commercially available options can seem overwhelming until one considers the particular application needs and categorizes reagents by their general features. The following two tables provide a comprehensive list of Thermo Scientific Pierce Crosslinking Reagents classified as succinctly as possible by their most important features.

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Homobifunctional Crosslinkers (both ends the same)

Homobifunctional Crosslinkers. A list of crosslinking reagents that have the same type of reactive group at either end. Reagents are classified by what chemical groups they crosslink (left column) and their chemical composition (middle column). Products are listed in order of increasing length within each table cell.
Crosslinking Target Reactive Groups, Features Crosslinker Products
Amine-to-Amine NHS esters DSG
DSS
BS3
TSAT (trifunctional)
NHS esters, PEG spacer BS(PEG)5
BS(PEG)9
NHS esters, thiol-cleavable DSP
DTSSP
NHS esters, misc-cleavable DST
BSOCOES
EGS
Sulfo-EGS
Imidoesters DMA
DMP
DMS
Imidoesters, thiol-cleavable DTBP
Other DFDNB
Sulfhydryl-to-Sulfhydryl Maleimides BMOE
BMB
BMH
TMEA (trifunctional)
Maleimides, PEG spacer BM(PEG)2
BM(PEG)3
Maleimides, cleavable DTME

 

Heterobifunctional Crosslinkers (different reactive ends)

Heterobifunctional Crosslinkers. A list of crosslinking reagents that have the different reactive groups at either end. Reagents are classified by what chemical groups they crosslink (left column) and their chemical composition (middle column). Products are listed in order of increasing length within each table cell.
Crosslinking Targets Crosslinker Reactive Groups, Features Crosslinker Products
Amine-to-Sulfhydryl NHS ester / Maleimide

AMAS
BMPS
GMBS and Sulfo-GMBS
MBS and Sulfo-MBS
SMCC and Sulfo-SMCC
EMCS and Sulfo-EMCS
SMPB and Sulfo-SMPB
SMPH
LC-SMCC
Sulfo-KMUS

NHS ester / Maleimide, PEG spacer SM(PEG)2
SM(PEG)4
SM(PEG)6
SM(PEG)8
SM(PEG)12
SM(PEG)24
NHS ester / Pyridyldithiol, cleavable

SPDP
LC-SPDP
and Sulfo-LC-SPDP
SMPT
PEG4-SPDP
PEG12-SPDP

NHS esters / Haloacetyl

SIA
SBAP
SIAB
Sulfo-SIAB

Amine-to-Nonselective
(Photo-reactive)
NHS ester / Aryl Azide ANB-NOS
Sulfo-SANPAH
NHS ester / Diazirine SDA and Sulfo-SDA
LC-SDA and Sulfo-LC-SDA
NHS ester / Diazirine, cleavable SDAD and Sulfo-SDAD
Carboxyl-to-Amine Carbodiimide

DCC
EDC
See also: NHS and Sulfo-NHS

Sulfhydryl-to-Carbohydrate Maleimide / Hydrazide BMPH
EMCH
MPBH
KMUH
Pyridyldithiol / Hydrazide PDPH
Hydroxyl-to-Sulfhydryl Isocyanate / Maleimide PMPI
Amine-to-DNA NHS ester / Psoralen SPB
Browse all Thermo Scientific Pierce Crosslinking Reagents

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