Thermo Scientific Pierce SATA is a short-chain (2.8 angstrom spacer arm) reagent for covalent modification of primary amines and addition of a protected yet exposable sulfhydryl group, enabling heterobifunctional crosslinking strategies.
SATA (N-succinimidyl S-acetylthioacetate) adds sulfhydryl groups to proteins and other amine-containing molecules in a protected form. The modified molecule can be stored indefinitely and treated with hydroxylamine to expose the labile sulfhydryl group when needed for conjugation reactions. SATA contains an N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, which forms a stable, covalent amide bond with primary amines (i.e., lysine residues and the amino termini of proteins) and releases NHS as a by-product. De-protection (deacylation) to generate a free sulfhydryl is accomplished using hydroxylamine-HCl. SATA is available as the reagent alone and in the Sulfhydryl Addition Kit, which contains all necessary components to introduce free sulfhydryl groups into any primary amine-containing molecule, purify the modified molecule and quantify the added sulfhydryl groups.
- Adds a protected sulfhydryl that can be deprotected by hydroxylamine
- Allows long-term storage of the sulfhydryl-modified molecule
- Forms cleavable disulfide bonds with other sulfhydryl-containing molecules
- Reacts with primary amines (lysine residues and the amino terminus of a protein) to form stable amide bonds
- Preserves protein activity with its mild, non-denaturing reaction conditions
Sulfhydryl groups present on proteins, peptides and other compounds are important in protein chemistry/modification reactions. Frequently, thiols are unavailable or absent within the molecules of interest. Although several reagents and techniques are available for introducing sulfhydryl groups or disulfides into proteins and peptides, including Traut's Reagent and SPDP, SATA has several benefits listed in the highlights above.
- Reactivity: Primary amine; adds a protected sulfhydryl
- Spacer Arm Length: 2.8 angstroms
- Molecular Weight: 231.23
- Chemical Formula: C8H9NO5S
- CAS Number: 76931-93-6
- Duncan, R.J.S., et al. (1983). A new reagent which may be used to introduce sulfhydryl groups into proteins, and its use in the preparation of conjugates for immunoassay. Anal Biochem 132: 68-73.
SATP – slightly longer version of SATA
SAT(PEG)4 – longer PEGylated version of SATA
Hydroxylamine – deprotects sulfhydryls after SATA modification
Traut's Reagent– small thiolation compound
SPDP – amine-to-sulfhydryl crosslinker